Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement... Its power is frequently mentioned in articles about learning and teaching, but surprisingly few recent studies have systematically investigated its meaning. This article provides a conceptual analysis offeedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement. This evidence shows that although feedback is among the major influences, the type offeedback and the way it is given can be differentially effective. A model offeedback is then proposed that identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it effective, and some typically thorny issues are discussed, including the timing of feedback and the effects of positive and negative feedback. Finally, this analysis is used to suggest ways in which feedback can be used...
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